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Perfume Notes A-Z-image

Perfume Notes A-Z

  • How is perfume created?
  • What are the ingredients of perfume products?

       Perfume consists of "fragrance notes" that are categorized based on how long their scent lingers on the skin. These notes are carefully crafted to create a unique and balanced fragrance. Read more about each note in this guide.

      How is perfume created?

      The first scent that you smell when you apply a perfume is the top note, which is typically a light and fresh fragrance. It lasts for approximately 10-15 minutes before giving way to the heart note.

      The heart note lingers for 2-4 hours and blends with your natural body scent, ultimately determining how the perfume smells on you.

      The base note is the final and longest-lasting fragrance on your skin, persisting for at least six hours. It usually comprises sweet and heavy scents that leave a lasting impression. Read more here 

      What are the ingredients of perfume products ?

      Perfumes typically consist of a blend of fragrance ingredients, such as essential oils, aroma compounds, and synthetic chemicals, which provide the desired scent. These ingredients are often diluted with alcohol or water to create the final product. Read this guide about the different notes in perfumes.


      ACAIA in perfumes

      There exist numerous species of acacia trees, but for the perfume industry, the Acacia Farnesiana, commonly referred to as the Needle Bush, is utilized. This bush, which can sometimes grow into a small tree, thrives in regions where the temperature remains above freezing. The fragrance industry extracts essential oil from the flowers of this plant, producing a scent that is a blend of orange blossom and violet, with subtle undertones of cumin.

      ALDEHYDES  - Synthetic molecules

      Aldehydes are hydrocarbons that are produced through the slow oxidation of alcohol. This meticulous process makes aldehydes a relatively expensive ingredient, which is primarily used in perfumery. The scent of aldehydes can vary depending on the type of alcohol used to produce them. However, the fragrance is often described as green and spicy, with subtle hints of floral and citrus notes. It is also reminiscent of metallic, clean and warm linen, laundry and gas.

      ALMOND notes in perfume

      Almonds, originating from the Middle East and India, have spread worldwide. They refer to both the tree and its fruit, which isn't a true nut. They have traveled from the Mediterranean to America, with the U.S. being the top producer. The almond's scent is a luxurious, creamy, and subtle fragrance that pairs well with vanilla.

      What is AMBER?

      Amber does not exist in perfumery. The amber accord, drawing inspiration from the traditional blends of Ancient Arabian perfumers, elevates fragrances imbued with amber notes that are intertwined with the sweet scents of vanilla or cistus labdanum. It has nothing to do with the fossilized resin used in jewelry and is generally used to describe synthetic Ambergris. It is also used to describe Labdanum based scents.
      In CRA-YON, we have Amber in Sand Service, Passport Amour, The High Road, Vanilla CEO and Continental 

      What is AMBERGRIS?

      Ambergris refers to a waxy substance secreted by the cachalot or sperm whale as a pathological response to the irritation caused by cuttlefish beaks. When these beaks enter the whale's respiratory tract or intestine, the whale secretes a protective layer of waxy paste around it to alleviate further irritation. It is the most costly of all raw materials, being worth around ten times the price of gold. 


      Ambrein is extracted from purified Labdanum. It has a ambergis - like smell and is a great fixative.

      AMBRETTE perfumes

      Ambrette Absolute is obtained from the seeds of the Hibiscus which produces an oil that is very soft, balsamic, sensual and animalic. It is often referred to as Vegetable Musk, although the smell is more similar to Ambergris.

      AMBROXAN in fragrances

      Ambroxan or Ambroxide is a synthetic fragrance note that has been created to smell like amber. Many people find that it gives a salty, smooth, slightly skin-like scent, while others find it to have a creamy musk-like tone.

      AMYRIS in perfumes

      Amyris essential oil is extracted from the Amyris balsamifera tree, which grows in the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico regions. While commonly known as West Indian Sandalwood, it is important to note that Amyris has no relation to true sandalwood.

      ANGELICA in perfumes

      Angelica Essential Oil is obtained from the Angelica archangelica . The smell reminds of Musk, juniper and benzoin.

      ANISE in perfumes

      Aniseed or Roman Fennel is obtained from Pimpinella anisum. It is not so common in perfumery today but was very popular in the Middle ages as it was believed to protect againt evil.

      ANISEED in perfumes

      Aniseed Essential oil is obtained from the seeds of the Illicium verum tree. It has a bright, warm, spicy pungent smell.

      What is OUD? 

      Agarwood, also known as Aoud or Oud is the resinous heartwood of the Aquilaria tree. The heartwood becomes diseased, leaving it dark oil and dense. In CRA-YON we have Agarwood (Oud) in Passport Amour and Continental

      APPLE fragrances

      Throughout history, apples have held symbolic and mythical significance. In Norse mythology, the apple was linked to eternal youth, while in Greek mythology, it was a mysterious fruit. The scent of apples can vary depending on the variety - green apples tend to have a fresher and sharper aroma, while sweet, light red apples have a softer scent.

      APPLE BLOSSOM notes

      Apple blossoms are the delicate flowers of apple trees that cover their branches like small petal clouds during springtime. In the Middle Ages, monks commonly picked apple blossoms and preserved them in vinegar to use as a skin remedy and medicine. Today, there are over 7,500 different varieties of apples worldwide, and the colors of apple blossoms range from sheer white to bright cerise. The apple blossom has a playful, fruity, crisp, and floral scent that is often associated with the freshness and renewal of spring. Its sweet aroma fills the air and delights our senses, signaling the arrival of warmer days and the promise of a fruitful harvest to come. Whether you're admiring the blossoms on the trees or enjoying their fragrance in perfumes and candles, apple blossoms are a beautiful and timeless symbol of nature's bounty and beauty.


      Aquatic, marine, or ozonic notes in perfumes are not specific fragrances, but rather a composition that evokes a sense of freshness and purity. These notes capture the essence of the sea, fresh mountain air, and clean laundry, and are commonly used in modern, "clean" scents.

      ARTEMISIA in perfume

      Artemisia Essential Oil is obtained from Artemis vulgaris. It is natual, leafy, warm, aniseed - like odour.

      BAMBOO scents

      Bamboo is a versatile plant that belongs to the woody grass family and is found in tropical and subtropical climates across Asia and America. Its distinctive, robust, and pliable stem is widely used in construction, furniture-making, bridge-building, and raft-making. The tender shoots of bamboo are a common ingredient in Asian cuisine and also serve as the primary source of sustenance for endangered pandas. Additionally, bamboo is used to infuse perfumes with a refreshing and green aroma.

      BASIL in perfumery

      Basil Essential oil is obtained from Ocimum basilicum, which is cultivated in many parts of the world. It has a fresh, warm leafy smell with a aniseed undertone.

      BAY LEAF in perfumes

      Bay Essential oil is obtained from Laurus nobilis and gives a natural warm leafy bittersweet aniseed note.

      BEEWAX in perfumes

      Beewax absolut has a warm, sweet animalic honey like smell.

      What is BENZOIN?

      Benzoin, a resin derived from Styrax trees, originally found in Asia, is a popular ingredient in the perfume industry. The essential oil or extract obtained from benzoin using alcohol has a warm, woody fragrance with a hint of vanilla, making it a highly sought-after ingredient in the perfume-making process.

      What is BERGAMOT?

      Bergamot is considered to be the finest of the citrus notes and is obtained from the fruit of Citrus Bergamia. Essential oils are extracted from its peel using a cold-pressing method. The distinct aroma of bergamot oil has a unique citrusy scent that sets it apart from other citrus fruits. It takes an impressive 200 kg of bergamot to product a single liter of essential oil. It boasts a fuller, sweeter, and slightly woody fragrance, often described as a blend of lemon with hints of pear. With a more suave note than lemon. A fresh, soft, floral lavender, peppery and sparkling scent that reminds of Earl Grey tea.
      Art life  Vanilla CEO  and  Ami Amie has Bergamot in the top notes. 

      BIRCH BUD fragrances

      Birch Bud essential oil is obtained from Betula alba. The oil obtained from the bud is delicate and balsamic with an undertone of oakmoss. By distilling fresh bark and fresh buds you can extract the essential oils that give perfumes a green, woody smell of resin.


      Birch tar is a viscous, dark brown liquid that is extracted from the bark of birch trees. Its scent is distinctive and potent, blending a sweet aroma with a strong, smoky, and spicy odor. The fragrance is often described as a complex mix of wood, smoke, leather, and tar.

      BITTER ORANGE in perfumes

      The bitter orange, also known as Seville orange, may resemble a regular orange in appearance, but its taste is notably bitter and spicy, rendering it almost inedible. Originating from India, bitter orange is commonly used in cooking, while in Sweden it is a flavoring agent for certain types of bread. One of the most popular uses of bitter orange is as a flavor in mulled wine, a traditional Christmas beverage. Through a cold-pressing process of the unripe fruit, essential oils are extracted, which yield a fresh citrus scent that feels heavier and more bitter than other oranges at first, but gradually develops into a blend of bitterness, sweetness, and floral notes, setting it apart from other citrus fruits.

      BLACK PEPPAR fragrances

      Black pepper is one of the most commonly used spices in cooking and comes from the same plant as white pepper. The difference lies in the harvesting process, where black pepper is harvested when it is unripe and then dried, while white pepper is harvested when it is fully ripe. This spice has been known in India since prehistoric times and was once considered a highly expensive commodity when the Europeans first arrived there. It was often referred to as "black gold," a phrase that may now be more commonly associated with oil than with black pepper. The aroma of black pepper is characterized by its spicy, hot, and fresh peppery notes.

      BLACKBERRY in perfumery

      In perfume Blackberry is used to give the perfume a sweet, fruity and berry frangrance.

      BLACK CURRANT notes

      Also known as Cassis. Blackcurrants are typically found growing on medium-sized shrubs with lobed leaves. The plant is highly aromatic, as both the leaves and flowers carry the same distinctive scent as the berries themselves. Ami Amie has Blackcurrant in the top note.

      BLOOD ORANGE in perfume

      Blood orange is grown mostly in Sicily. Like other citrus fruits essential oils are extracted by cold pressing the peel. The smell is different from other citrus fruits and is even more plump and cheerful in its fragrance, the fragrance also has hints of raspberries and strawberries.

      BLUEBERRY in perfumes

      Blueberries used in perfumes gives a mild, fruity, full-bodied fragrance.

      BORONIA in perfumes

      Boronia is an exceptionally rare flower that grows exclusively on Bruny Island, Australia's southernmost island, situated off the coast of Tasmania. This delicate flower blooms for a short period during the month of September. It produces a lemonlike citrusy, warm and slightly violet-like note with undertone of freesia.

      BROOM in perfumes

      Broom is obtained from Spartium junceum which is grown in the southern of France. It smells intensely rich, sweet and warm and redolent of sweet hay with undertones of tobacco and Coumarin.

      BUCHU in perfumes

      Buchu is obtained from the leaves of Agathosma betulina, which is a shrub. It grows in south Africa. It is mint like with an undertone of black currant.

      CACAO fragrances

      Cacao is obtained from the fruit and seeds of a small tree, Theobroma cacao which grows across Central America, with Venezuela being the main source of production. The oil is warm , soft and rich.

      CACTUS in perfumery

      The cactus is a unique succulent plant that originated in America. The first plant was imported to Europe in the late 1400s, and it's believed that Christopher Columbus was among the first to bring a cactus to Europe. With between 1,500 and 2,000 different species, the cactus is a versatile plant that can thrive in harsh conditions and is also a popular choice as a houseplant. In the world of perfumery, cactus are valued for their fresh and green fragrance. The aroma of cactus evokes the clean, crisp scent of the desert after a rainstorm, with a subtle hint of sweetness that captures the plant's resilient and enduring nature. Whether in the wild or in a perfume bottle, the cactus is a fascinating and unique plant that continues to inspire and captivate us.

      CALYCANTHUS in perfumes

      Calycanthus is obtained from the flowers of a tree which grows in Northern America. The scent is apple like and reminiscent of cinnamom.

      CAMELIA in perfumes

      The camelia is a flower with a mild, sweet and delicat fragrance. The Camelia is also known as "the Oriental Rose" and is in the Far East a symbol of pure and eternal love.

      CANTALOUPE in perfumes

      Cantaloupe is a widely popular fruit, commonly enjoyed on its own or incorporated into salads and appetizers such as ham dishes. It's known for its sweet and mild fragrance.

      CARAMEL fragrances

      Caramel is a popular ingredient in desserts, and is created by heating sugar until it reaches a molten state. The word "caramel" is believed to derive from the Latin term for sugarcane, "callamellus," and the aroma of caramel is characterized by its buttery, sweet, and creamy scent.

      Milk Caramel: Also referred to as creamy caramel, milk caramel is created by incorporating milk into the traditional caramel recipe. This addition grants it a velvety texture and a subtle milky taste. 

      Blond Caramel: This variety of caramel is prepared by gently cooking sugar until it acquires a light golden hue. Unlike its classic counterpart, blond caramel undergoes a shorter cooking time, resulting in a delicate and understated flavor.

      Caramel with Fleur de Sel: This caramel type is made by infusing fleur de sel into the traditional caramel recipe. The addition of fleur de sel introduces a nuanced and intricate salty note that enhances the caramel's sweet flavors. 

      Flavored Caramel: In addition to the fundamental caramel varieties, there exists an infinite range of flavored caramels. Ingredients such as vanilla, coffee, spices, coconut, almonds, or even spirits can be incorporated into caramel to impart unique and original flavors. 

      CARAWAY in perfumes

      Caraway is often mistaken for cumin, but it is a distinct spice that grows abundantly in many regions of Europe. Primarily used for baking and seasoning Aquavit, the essential oils of caraway are extracted through distillation. Its fragrance is robust and spicy, with a subtle hint of anise, giving it a distinctly masculine aroma, which makes it a popular ingredient in perfumes.

      CARDAMOM in perfumes

      Cardamom is a spice that is indigenous to Southeast Asia and is widely used in cooking, particularly in India. However, Guatemala is currently the largest producer of cardamom. The spice has been known in Europe since the 1200s, when it was first imported.

      CARNATION in fragrances

      Carnations are a diverse flower species, with over 300 different varieties, and they thrive in the Northern Hemisphere. Sweden, in particular, is home to several varieties of wild carnations. When used as a scent in perfume, carnations can be incorporated as an essence or a Carnation absolute. The resulting fragrance will vary depending on the method of perfuming. An essence captures the scent of the flower almost identically, while the absolute produces a sweeter and spicier floral aroma.


      Carrot seed essential oil is obtained from the crushed seeds of Daucus carota. It is reminiscent of orris and violet with a warm spicy undertone. It is traditionally used in Chypre and Fougere structures.

      CASSIE in perfumery

      Cassie is obtained from Acacia farnesiana. It grows in the south of France. It has a powdery mimosa, violet like smell.

      What is CEDARWOOD?

      The cedar tree, a conifer of the silver fir family, is indigenous to the Mediterranean and the Himalayas, where it grows at altitudes of up to 3,000 meters above sea level. It is regarded as Lebanon's national symbol and is prominently featured on their flag. To extract the essential oils from Cedarwood, either chips, stumps, or bark are distilled. These days, the essential oils are primarily sourced from France, Algeria, and Morocco. Cedarwood harmonizes well with other woodsy aromas like patchouli, vetiver, or sandalwood. However, its most seamless combination is with floral and citrus scents, especially when paired with the vibrant zest of grapefruit. Its warm, dry, and woody notes, accompanied by a subtle leather undertone, provide a distinct and natural fragrance. The scent of Cedarwood is evocative of old wood with subtle notes of smoke, resin, and cinnamon.

      CELERY SEED in perfumes

      Celery grows in Southern Europe and is often used to create Tuberose and sweet Pea harmonies.

      CHAMOMILLE in perfumes

      Chamomile flowers are a common sight throughout Europe and Asia. Extracting essential oils from chamomile can be a challenging process as the flowers are delicate and easily damaged. However, once the oils are extracted, they produce a fragrance that is spicy, floral, and reminiscent of chamomile tea.

      CHERRY fragrances

      Cherries possess a delicate and balanced essence that combines sweetness, acidity, and a subtle bitterness from the kernel.

      CHERRY BLOSSOM notes

      The cherry blossom is often associated with Japan and is the country's national flower. The cherry tree has been cultivated in Japan for over 4000 years and there are more than 200 varieties. The cherry blossom, or Sakura as it's called in Japanese, is an important symbol in Japanese culture and the blooming represents renewal, life, and hope, and is celebrated in parks throughout the country. The cherry blossom can be both pink and white and has a sweet, delicate scent.

      CHESTNUT in perfumery

      The chestnut tree, belonging to the beech family, is a deciduous species that thrives in Europe, Asia, and North America. This tree boasts oblong-shaped leaves and yields incredibly prickly seed pods that bear delicious, edible nutty berry fruits. Culinary enthusiasts often utilize chestnuts for roasting, as well as for creating purees that are perfect for desserts and baking. In the world of perfumery, the chestnut provides a delightful, soft, and sweet aroma.

      CHILI in fragrances

      The aroma of chili is robust, hot, and spicy, evoking a stimulating sensation.

      CHOCOLATE fragrances

      Chocolate has a rich history in South and Central America, where it has been cultivated for thousands of years. The aroma of chocolate is luxurious and surprisingly sweet, with hints of caramel and a distinctive chocolate scent. 

      CINNAMON notes

      Cinnamon, a spice derived from the bark of the cinnamon tree, is predominantly grown in Asia, with Africa being a secondary source. It wasn't until the Middle Ages that cinnamon gained widespread popularity in Europe. For perfume making, essential oils are extracted from cinnamon through the process of distillation. The resulting fragrance is unique and difficult to compare to anything else, other than perhaps the aroma of a freshly baked cinnamon bun.

      CISTUS in perfumery

      Cistus essential oil is not to be confused with the oil obtained from the gum resin from the same plant. Cistus is ambergris like but it is sweeter and honeyed.

      CLARY SAGE in perfumery

      Clary Sage is grown around Grasse. It has a fresh , soft, sweet smell which is reminiscent of grapes, orange blossom or ambergris. The flower is distilled for essential oils and the scent is very sweet with notes of hay, wood and bergamot.

      CLEMENTINE fragrances

      Clementine is a hybrid between mandarin and sweet orange.

      CLOVE in perfumes

      Clove originates from the Moluccas, a group of islands formerly known as the Spice Islands. However, it has made its way to Europe and the Middle East as early as 4000 years ago. This fragrant spice boasts a fresh, fruity aroma that exudes a warm, spicy, and slightly woody essence.

      COCONUT in perfumes

      The coconut palm produces the widely popular fruit known as coconut, which is believed to have originated from South America but is now found all over the world in areas with a tropical or warm subtropical climate. The fruit gained popularity in Europe as early as the 500s, through tales of exotic travel. In the world of perfumery, the sweet and round aroma of coconut is highly sought after. In Caramel days we have coconut as a top note.

      COFFEE fragrances

      The coffee plant can trace its origins back to Ethiopia, and from there, it made its way to the Arabian Peninsula, where coffee beans were exported from the port of Mocha. In the world of perfumery, coffee oil is highly valued for its ability to provide a strong, rich, and aromatic scent that evokes the aroma of freshly brewed coffee. 

      COGNAC in perfumery

      This absolut comes from the actives in both the yeast and the grape used to create cognac. It can add a sophisticated and refined touch to a scent, often used in combination with other warm and spicy notes such as cinnamon, nutmeg, or clove.

      CORIANDER in perfumes

      The scent of coriander is characterized by its freshness, with subtle notes of orange. Its warm, peppery, and sweet aroma is further complemented by hints of anise and musk. Coriander can be found in the heart note of Continental.

      COSMOS FLOWER notes

      The Cosmos Flowers scent is intense and sweet with a velvety quality and an aroma of cocoa. 


      Its scent is both pleasant and distinctive, often described as reminiscent of freshly mown hay. Coumarin can be found in a variety of plants, including grasses, clovers, and even cinnamon.

      CYCLAMEN notes

      Cyclamen is a popular garden flower that is native to Europe and Mediterranean countries. While some varieties can withstand frost and be grown in colder, northerly regions, it is generally a common sight in gardens across its native range. Perfumers often use Cyclamen absolute in their creations, which provides an earthy and woody aroma. This ingredient is derived from the flowers of the plant and has become a popular choice due to its unique scent profile.

      CYPRESS in perfumery

      Cypress essential oils are extracted from the needles and cones of the cypress pine tree through a process called distillation. The resulting scent is fresh, coniferous, and often features a hint of citrus. This particular essential oil has become popular in the fragrance industry, as its unique aroma provides a refreshing and invigorating quality.

      CYPRIOL in perfumery

      Cypriol Essential oil is obtained from a form of papyrus which grows in Bengal, India and Australia. It has a warm diffusive woddy smell which is reminiscent of Patchouli with undertone of vetiver saffron and cedarwood.


      Daffodil, also known as Narcissus, is a bulbous plant that typically blooms in the months of April or May. The plant produces a single, strikingly bright trumpet-shaped flower that is sure to catch the eye of any onlooker. Interestingly, in the past, decoctions made from the plant were believed to have soothing properties, although large doses were thought to be paralyzing. The plant's name "Narcissus" is derived from the Greek word "Narke," which means paralysis or anesthesia. In addition to its medicinal properties, daffodil is also prized for its mild sweet floral scent, which has made it a popular ingredient in perfumes. Whether admired for its beauty or appreciated for its fragrance, daffodil is truly a remarkable plant that has captured the hearts of people for generations.

      DAMASK ROSE fragrances

      The Damask Rose, also known as Rosa Damascena, is a rose hybrid renowned for its captivatingly deep and intense aroma. Its roots can be traced back as early as 300 BC, originating from the Middle East. Although it no longer grows in the wild, it is widely cultivated in Bulgaria and Turkey. The oil derived from the Damask Rose is highly fragrant and regarded as the finest and most expensive rose oil. It is predominantly utilized in the perfume and beauty industry. The Damask Rose is admired for its warm, yet refreshing scent, evocative of velvety honey. Passport Amour opens up with Damask Rose as a top note.

      DAVANA in perfumery

      Davana, scientifically known as Artemisia Pallens, belongs to the wormwood genus and can be found growing wild. However, it is also cultivated in India for its valuable essential oil, which is extracted from both the leaves and flowers. In the field of aromatherapy, davana is regarded as having aphrodisiac properties, as well as being a calming and relaxing agent. One of the distinguishing characteristics of davana is its distinct and complex aroma, which blends sweet and fruity notes with a touch of masculine woodiness. The oil is fruity, sweet and some what tea like in odour.

      EBONY in perfumery

      Ebony is a rare wood known for its unique black core, which is found in various parts of the world such as India, Africa, and Indonesia. Each variety of Ebony from these regions has its own distinctive properties. Historically, Ebony has been used for various purposes. The ancient Egyptians used Ebony to carve hieroglyphs and writing on sheets of wood. When Ebony became known to Europeans during the 1500s, it was used for furniture making due to its durability and aesthetic appeal. The wood's fragrance is characterized by an intense and exclusive woody aroma, with notes of sandalwood and musk. 

      EUCALUPTYS fragrances

      The essential oil  from various Eucalyptus species, native to Australia range from lemon like to rose like smell.

      FENNEL SEED in perfumery

      Fennel Essential oil is obtained from the seeds of various varieties of Foeniculum. It has a distictly aniseed lie odour.

      FERN notes

      The term "Fern" or "Fougères" is derived from the French word for "fern-like," and refers not to the plant itself, but rather to a fragrance that evokes feelings of being surrounded by nature, woodlands, and grassy fields. This fragrance category typically exhibits a rich and complex aroma, with notes of citrus, lavender, and wood, as well as touches of rose, oak moss, and a general woody scent.

      FIG fragrances

      Figs have enjoyed popularity across a variety of human cultures throughout history. In Buddhism, it is said that the Buddha achieved enlightenment while sitting beneath a fig tree known as Bodhi. Similarly, in the Christian faith, Adam and Eve used fig leaves to cover their bodies. Additionally, figs have been used for medicinal purposes, as they are believed to alleviate heartburn symptoms. The fragrance of fig extract, which is derived from the seeds and leaves of the tree, is characterized by its sweet yet woody scent. 

      FIG LEAF in perfumery

      Fig leaves are solitary and grow on the fig tree. These leaves are generally large and light green in color, with three to five lobes. The upper surface of the leaf has short, rough hair, while the underside has softer hair.

      FIR perfumes

      Fir is a widely distributed species across Scandinavia, with presence in almost all parts of Sweden, Finland, and deep into Russia. It finds significant applications in the wood and paper industries, but is also strongly associated with Christmas festivities, especially as the Christmas tree. Perfumers typically use three different types of fir, namely the Swedish, Siberian, and Silver fir. Although the essential oil production process is the same for all three types, the resulting fragrances differ slightly. Notably, the Silver and Swedish fir variants share a similar scent.

      FRANGIPANI perfumes

      Frangipani has a fascinating history that traces back to an Italian aristocratic family. One of their members formulated a fragrance that became renowned as the Frangipani scent. Later, during Columbus's exploration of the New World, another Frangipani family member discovered a plant that bore their name - the frangipani plant. Interestingly, during the 17th and 18th centuries, most perfumers had their interpretation of Frangipani scent, which seldom included the actual plant but a powdery jasmine aroma.The Frangipani flower has a distinctive floral scent that bears a resemblance to jasmine.

      FREESIA perfumes

      Freesia, a flower with African origins, was discovered in the 1800s and named by a German scientist named Friedrich Freese. Today, it is a popular garden plant and also widely used in candles, soaps, skin care, and perfumes due to its delightful fragrance. The sweet, light, and floral aroma of Freesia has a subtle hint of soap elements, making it a popular choice for various scented products.

      What is FRANKINCENSE?

      Frankincense Absolut is derived from various types of Boswellia trees and is renowned for its fresh and almost citrus-like aroma. Also known as Olibanum, Frankincense comes in several varieties, with the finest being the White or Silver Frankincense obtained from the Boswellia Sacra tree in Oman.

      GALBANUM in perfumery

      Galbanum is a natural resin derived from the Ferula plant, which predominantly grows in Iran. The plant secretes a rubber-like substance, which is collected and processed to obtain Galbanum. While Galbanum is commonly used in rubber patches, it is also a popular ingredient in perfumes, where it imparts a unique and aromatic spicy scent.

      GARDENIA in perfumery

      Gardenia is a flower native to Asia and has been depicted in works of art and porcelain for thousands of years. In Western countries, it is commonly grown as an indoor plant. The flower can also be used as a tea flavoring and is believed to have fever-reducing properties. Essential oils cannot be extracted directly from Gardenia flowers; perfumers use dried flower extracts instead. The scent of Gardenia is sweet, floral, and has a silky quality. It evokes a feeling of exclusivity and is reminiscent of jasmine.

      GENTIANS in perfumery

      Gentians are a globally-distributed plant species, growing in regions from the Alps to New Zealand, Africa, and Asia. They are named after a Greek king from the Iliad who discovered the appetite-inducing properties of Gentian. Due to its medicinal benefits, Gentian is a popular ingredient in both medicinal drugs and beverages. The plant has a distinctly bitter taste, and in fact, the spirit Angostura Bitter - a crucial component in a Manhattan cocktail - is said to contain only Gentian. Apart from its bitter taste, Gentian also emits an aroma that is somewhat bitter, sharp, and strong.

      GERANIUM in perfumery

      Geranium is a plant that grows in various regions worldwide, but it is most commonly found around the eastern Mediterranean. It also occurs in the wild in northern countries.The oil of Geranium is obtained through a distillation process and has a fresh, fruity scent with sweet citrus notes, as well as hints of rose, mint, and spices.

      GINGER fragrances

      Perfumers extract essential oils from the dried, unpeeled root of ginger using a distillation process. The resulting oil has a fresh, green, and citrusy scent, with warm and woody undertones and a hint of pepperiness.

      GORSE in perfumery

      Gorse is an evergreen, thorny shrub that typically blooms from May to July, featuring large yellow flowers that sit alone or in pairs on short stems from the leaf axils. The pungent leaves and characteristic flowers are the defining features of this plant. The shrub can grow up to a meter and a half in height. Originally native to western Europe, Gorse is a common sight in the UK countryside. One of the most distinctive qualities of Gorse is its warm, sweet fragrance that has a hint of coconut-like aroma.

      GRAPE perfumes

      Grapes are berries that typically grow in clusters, varying in color, size, sweetness, and juiciness. They come in a range of colors, including yellow, red, green, and blue. Grapes are commonly used in wine production and also in dried form as raisins or as a snack in fruit salads. Grapes have been cultivated for thousands of years, originating in southwest Asia, India, and the Eastern Mediterranean, and more recently, in places like America, Australia, South Africa, and South America.The scent of grapes is mild, sweet, and fruity.

      GRAPEFRUIT perfumes

      Grapefruit is a unique citrus fruit, believed to be a natural hybrid of Pomelo and Orange, with the first grapefruit trees discovered growing in Jamaica. Since then, humans have played a role in its cultivation and spread, with the United States being the largest producer of grapefruit today. Grapefruit comes in both white and red varieties, with similar tastes, although the red ones tend to be slightly sweeter. Perfumers extract the essential oil for fragrance from the cold-pressed peel of the grapefruit. The resulting scent is a refreshing, sweet citrus aroma with a subtle hint of bitterness.

      GRASS fragrances

      Grass are annual or perennial herbs with greatly varying size that can grow singly or in dense tufts. The scent of grass is fresh, green and moist.

      GREEN TEA in perfumery

      Green tea is a type of tea that is produced from tea leaves that have not undergone oxidation. There are two common methods of preparing green tea: the Chinese method, which involves roasting the leaves in pans over fire, and the Japanese method, which involves steaming the leaves immediately after they are harvested to prevent the oxidation process. Green tea is characterized by its light, gentle grassy flavor and aroma. It is also available in various flavored versions, such as lemon or mint.


      The first thing you need to know about Guaiac Wood is that it's a kind of magic. This is the reason why it's called 'palo santo' – which means 'holy wood' in Spanish. The Guaiac tree is a tropical tree that originates from South and Central America. Its resin has long been believed to have medicinal properties and is still used today in some cough medicines. However, when distilled, the perfume oils extracted from the tree emit a fragrant aroma reminiscent of roses with subtle notes of violets. An excellent link between heart notes and base notes, the woody, balsamic facets of guaiac wood add depth with an air of smoky, leathery intrigue. Less dry than cedarwood and harder than sandalwood, guaiac wood is sweet and stable with rose-like facets. Woody, balsamic, smoky, powdery mimosa, rose-like.

      GUNPOWDER in perfumery

      A harmony of rich, leather-like characteristics with mineral, smoky, and metallic undertones, intended to evoke a powerful sensory experience. Its initial amber and sulfur top notes may be brief, but they leave a lasting impression.

      GURJUM in perfumery

      This balsamic Essential oil originates from Burma and Indonesia. It is obtained from Dipterocarpus jourdainii, and displays a sweet amber like woody smell.

      HAY in perfumery

      Hay is a term used to refer to dried grass, typically used as winter feed for herbivorous animals. Its sweet and warm aroma evokes the essence of a sunny day in the countryside.

      HAZELNUT in pefumery

      The hazelnut is a product of the hazel tree, a relatively small plant that originally thrived in shaded areas but can also grow well in open, sunny locations. The hazelnut matures from a small fruit item and two wire-like marks, which develop from the tree's flowers. It takes approximately five months for the nut to fully form, and it is rich in nutrients, encased in a hard shell. Hazelnuts are used in various ways, including baked goods, cooking, and cosmetics. In the world of perfumery, essential oils obtained through cold or hot pressing, and sometimes refining, are used to create a soft, warm, and nutty scent.

      HELIOTROPE fragrances

      Heliotrope is a flower that is native to Peru but is now commonly found in gardens. The flower has a sweet vanilla-like scent, which is not actually derived from the plant itself but from the chemical aldehyde known as Heliotropin. In perfumes, Heliotrope provides warm, powdery, and sweet notes with a strong vanilla scent.

      HONEY fragrances

      Honey has been an important part of human history for over 10,000 years, as evidenced by a cave painting found in Spain that depicts humans collecting honey. To extract honey, beekeepers collect it from hives and then it can be used in its pure form, with a sweet aroma that is unmistakably honey-like.

      HONEYSUCKLE in perfumes

      Honeysuckle is a shrub that is native to the northern hemisphere, with many species originating from Europe, China, and India. Honeysuckle is popular with hummingbirds as its nectar is also edible for humans, although the berries should not be consumed as they are toxic. Perfumers can extract an absolute from honeysuckle, which has a heavy, warm scent with hints of vanilla and citrus.

      HYACINTH in perfumes

      Hyacinth is a flower that originated in the eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East. According to a Greek myth, the flower was named after a beautiful young boy named Hyacinth, who was loved by both the Greek god Apollo and Zephyr. However, Zephyr became jealous and killed Hyacinth. Apollo then turned Hyacinth's blood into a flower, which was named after the boy. Perfumers use Hyacinth absolute to create a fragrance with a strong, sweet, and green floral scent.

      IMMORTELLE in perfumery

      Immortelle is a flowering bush known as the "everlasting flower" because its bright yellow flowers are perfectly preserved even when picked. The bush grows wild in the Mediterranean and is used as a spice, decoration, and in beauty and skincare products for its anti-aging properties. The scent of Immortelle is dry and herbaceous with a hint of tobacco and a honey-like aroma.

      INCENCE scents

      An ancient tradition among humans, incense has been used for various purposes on different continents for a long time, and it is still a common practice in many religions today. The name "incense" encompasses more than just the smoke it produces when burned; it also refers to the material itself. Incense can come in many forms, and its scent varies depending on the ingredients used. Cedarwood, rose, vanilla, and sage are some common ingredients found in incense.

      IRIS fragrances

      The name Iris is derived from the Greek word for rainbow, which alludes to the flower's colorful appearance. The flower is also known as Orris or Fleur de lis. Essential oils for perfumes are extracted by distilling the root, which results in a soft, powdery, and woody scent. The fragrance may be perceived as reminiscent of violets, with a sweet, warm, and fruity undertone.

      IVY in perfumery

      Ivy is a perennial climbing plant that adheres to various surfaces such as trees, walls, houses, and other structures. This versatile plant is also widely cultivated in pots and window boxes as a decorative element. Native to Europe and extending eastwards to Iran, Ivy features lush evergreen leaves that are highly ornamental and emit a fresh, green scent.

      What is JASMINE?


      The Jasmine flower, which has over 200 varieties, is originally from the Himalayan valleys but is now cultivated in many countries worldwide. The largest producers are India and Egypt, with smaller amounts being grown in Morocco, Italy, and France. In perfumery, only two varieties of jasmine are used: Jasmine Grandiflorum and Jasmine Sambac. Jasmine Grandiflorum blooms from June to October, with the best flowers being collected in July and August. To obtain a concrete, which is then washed with alcohol to derive absolutes, the most common method of extraction involves the use of solvents, with hexane being the most widely used. The oil exudes a pleasant, warm fragrance reminiscent of honey, with subtle notes of musk, fruit, and herbs. 

      JUNIPER in perfumery

      Juniper is a plant that grows across the globe, from the cooler Northern Hemisphere to the tropical regions of Central America and hot Africa. It is widely known for its use as a flavoring agent in drinks, such as gin which is infused with juniper berries. Before hops became popular, juniper berries were also used to flavor beer. The scent of juniper is diverse and bittersweet, with a fresh and peppery spiciness that ignites the senses.

      KARO KAROUNDE in perfumes

      Karo Karounde is a fragrant plant that has its roots in Africa. Its aroma is reminiscent of jasmine and gardenia, with a peppery and slightly animalic undertone. When combined with tuberose, Karo Karounde creates a harmonious and pleasing scent.

      LABDANUM scents

      Labdanum is a resin extracted from the cliff rose through a process of distillation of various parts of the plant. This resin has a long history of diverse applications. It was believed to have medicinal properties, and it was used to cure coughs, colds, and rheumatism. According to rumors, even the Pharaohs of Egypt who wore false beards used Labdanum as an adhesive. The fragrance of Labdanum is described as sweet and herbaceous, with notes of fruit and caramel.

      LAVENDER fragrances

      Lavender is renowned for its association with aromatherapy and is extensively used in massage and relaxation therapies. Additionally, the perfume industry uses lavender oil extensively. Lavender is primarily cultivated in France and Italy, with France being the leading producer of lavender oil. The scent of lavender is a refreshing blend of fruity and herbaceous notes, with woody and floral undertones.

      LEATHER scents

      Leather is a strong, durable material that is made from animal skins. Due to its durability, leather is widely used in the manufacturing of a range of products, from clothing to car seats. When it comes to creating a leather fragrance for perfumes, the process involves soaking the leather in order to extract its oils and resins. The resulting scent features a distinct leather aroma, accompanied by animalic undertones, and subtle hints of tar, hay, and citrus. You can find the leather note in both Continentals heart note and Sand Services base note.

      LEMON scents

      The origin of lemons is unclear, but what is certain is that they have been mentioned in historical records dating back 6,000 years. During the 1700s, lemons gained popularity as a cure for scurvy. In the world of perfumery, the lemon note is typically produced by pressing the peel, which extracts the essential oils that give off a tangy, slightly sweet fragrance with a fresh citrus scent. This aroma is often associated with summertime, and it can add a refreshing twist to any perfume blend.

      LILAC fragrances

      Lilac originates from southeastern Europe and eastern Asia and belongs to the same family as the olive tree. While it was once a rare plant, lilacs are now relatively common in gardens worldwide. In Cyprus, Greece, and Lebanon, lilacs are seen as a symbol of love. Extracting essential oils from lilacs can be a challenging process, so perfumers often resort to using various oil mixtures to simulate the scent of lilacs. Despite the difficulties in obtaining the scent, the fragrance of lilacs is highly sought after in the perfume industry due to its delicate, floral, and romantic aroma.

      LILY OF THE VALLEY fragrances

      Lily of the valley is a wildflower that can be found in the cooler regions of Europe and Asia. Since the late 1800s, it has been recognized as Finland's national flower. Essential oils from the delicate flowers are extracted through distillation, resulting in a perfume with a distinctive floral scent that incorporates notes of jasmine and hyacinth. This fragrance is highly sought after in the perfume industry and is often associated with springtime and new beginnings. 

      LIME scents

      Limes grow best in warm and tropical climates and are commonly used in food and drinks. To extract the essential oil, the unripe fruit is cold-pressed. While limes are drier, lighter, and sweeter than lemons, they have a more intense fragrance. In perfumes, lime adds a bright and lively citrus scent that gives an extra burst of freshness. Its green and sparkling aroma is highly prized by perfumers and is often used to create invigorating and uplifting fragrances.

      LINDEN FLOWERS in perfumery

      Linden flowers are abundant throughout Europe, with the exception of the extreme north. In Berlin, the main street is named "Unter den Linden", which means "under the linden trees". Linden flower tea is popular and believed to relieve colds. Extracting the substance called "absolute" from linden flowers is an expensive process, but it produces a highly sought-after fragrance ingredient. The absolute gives perfumes a warm and sweet scent with notes of both flowers and wood, making it a valuable addition to many fragrance blends.

      LITCHI notes

      Litchi is the name of a fruit tree that originated in China and is now cultivated almost exclusively in Asia, with the exception of the United States and South Africa. The fruit has been known for about 4000 years and was once so exclusive in China that it could be used to pay taxes with. Despite its long history in Asia, it wasn't until the late 1700s that the fruit was introduced to the West. In perfumes, the scent of litchi is exotic, enticing, fruity and sweet, adding a unique and refreshing touch to fragrance compositions.

      LOTUS perfumes

      The lotus, also known as the water lotus, is frequently confused with the water lily, despite belonging to a different plant family. Interestingly, lotus seeds are remarkably resilient, capable of surviving for extended periods even without the flower. In China, for example, there is documentation of a lotus that has lived for over a millennium. In Asian culture, the lotus holds a special significance and is often associated with Hinduism and Buddhism. The fragrance of the lotus is delicate and refined, evoking memories of lily, magnolia, and freesia. 

      MADONNA LILY in perfumery

      Madonna lily originates from the Balkans and the Middle East. It is believed that the Romans introduced the Madonna lily to Italy, from where it eventually spread throughout Europe. Extracted from the plant, essential oils offer a rich, almost intoxicating fragrance.

      MAGNOLIA perfumes

      The magnolia is a flower with a long and fascinating history. Its origins can be traced back to at least 20 million years ago, predating even the existence of bees. Instead, early magnolias were pollinated by ancestors of modern-day beetles. Today, magnolia is known for its potential medicinal benefits, including its use in anti-anxiety medications and as a possible allergy reliever. The fragrance of magnolia is a rich, creamy sweetness with subtle hints of citrus.

      MANDARIN perfumes

      The Mandarin fruit and its name both have their origins in China. The fruit's name is said to have come from the orange clothing worn by Chinese officials known as "great mandarins." The essential oils used in perfumes are extracted from the cold-pressed peel of the mandarin, which provides a much sweeter scent than other citrus fruits. This fragrance can be described as similar to oranges, but with a fruitier and more vibrant character, creating a hot, zesty effect.

      MAPLE in perfumery

      The Maple tree is a stunning tree with a magnificent crown and large leaves that transform into a vibrant display of colors during autumn, resembling a spectacular firework. It's worth noting that it takes nearly 60 liters of maple sap to produce a single liter of maple syrup. Fortunately, maple trees can grow up to 200 years old, providing ample time for sap production. The Maple tree's scent is sweet and woody, reminiscent of maple syrup, but with a distinct dryness that sets it apart.

      MARIGOLD in perfumery

      Marigolds or Tagetes are a yellow, yellow-orange flower from South Africa that we usually use as an ornamental plant in the gardens or flower boxes. It is not uncommon for Marigolds to be planted with tomatoes, tobacco, or chili when it is said that it keeps the deer, hares and other wildlife away. Essential oils are obtained by distillation and the scent is green, herbaceous, and with clear hints of caramel.

      MIMOSA in perfumery

      Mimosa is a legume that flourishes only in tropical and subtropical climates, making it predominantly found in South America, where most of the nearly 500 varieties grow. Mimosa's unique feature is that when touched, its flowers assume a "night position." A buttery concrete is extracted from mimosa using solvents. This produces a fragrance that is light, dry, and sweet as honey, with subtle hints of violets, ylang-ylang, and iris.

      MINT fragrances

      Mint has been grown worldwide for so long that its exact origin is unclear. This herb is known for its numerous health benefits, including relieving stomach pain and aiding digestion, due to its high percentage of antioxidants. In perfumery, the essential oils extracted from mint provide a refreshing, green, and spicy scent. Unlike peppermint oil, the scent of mint is experienced as warm and invigorating. Indian Mint can be found in the top note of Continental. 

      What is MUSK?

      Musk was originally an animal product obtained from musk deer. However, today, musk is extracted from plants such as the musk flower or produced chemically, rendering the use of animal products virtually obsolete. Musk is a popular ingredient in the perfume industry, providing a sweet, sensual, powdery scent reminiscent of leather and wood. Perfumers artfully manipulate a diverse range of synthetic musks to stabilize, blend and shape a multitude of ingredients into intoxicating accords. The resulting notes are pure and transparent, endowing a silky and slender effect.

      MYRRH perfumes

      Myrrh is a resin derived from a specific tree that grows wild in the Arabian Peninsula and parts of eastern Africa. For thousands of years, myrrh has been used for incense and perfumes and was once worth its weight in gold. Essential oils are extracted from myrrh resin through distillation. The resulting scent is medicinal, warm, dry, and bitter, with notes of resin and spices.

      MYRTLE in perfumery

      Myrtle is a fragrant species that originates from the Mediterranean region and is often cultivated for its aroma. While it can be found in gardens, it has a historical reputation as a hair growth enhancer. In ancient times and throughout the Middle Ages, myrtle was associated with love and immortality. Essential oils are extracted from the plant through distillation, resulting in a perfume oil with a spicy, peppery, herbal scent and sweet undertones.

      NEROLI fragances

      Neroli is the essential oil extracted from the flowers of the bitter orange tree through pressing. It has been used for perfume production since the 1600s, and also in aromatherapy. It is even rumored to be one of the secret ingredients in Coca-Cola, though this has not been confirmed. The oils are obtained through distillation of freshly picked flowers. The scent of Neroli is multifaceted, with aromas of orange peel, lavender, metallic and floral tones. Neroli oil alone also has a sweet, soft, spicy and dry, bitter wood tone. Art Life has Neroli as a heart note. 

      NUTMEG in perfumes

      Nutmeg is a widely used spice around the world, often added to potato dishes and cabbage dishes. However, nutmeg has also been utilized for medicinal purposes. In the perfume industry, nutmeg oil is known for providing a sweet and spicy scent, with hints of heat that may be reminiscent of turpentine.

      OAKMOSS in perfumes

      Despite its name, oak moss doesn't only grow on oak trees, but also on fruit trees and beech. It's primarily found in the northern regions of Europe and America, but can also be spotted in the Mediterranean. Oak moss is a popular ingredient in perfumes, especially in those designed for men, as it provides a robust and earthy scent.

      OPOPONAX in perfumes

      Opoponax is a resin that comes from the Opoponax plant, which thrives in warm climates such as Iran, Italy, Greece and Turkey. For many years, the resin has been used for incense, and it is also known as "sweet myrrh". According to legends, King Solomon considered it the noblest of resins. The essential oil for perfumes is extracted through the use of alcohol, and it provides a sweet, powdery and warm scent, reminiscent of Olibanum. 

      ORANGE FLOWER in perfumes

      Orange Flower essential oil, extracted through distillation of the flowers, has a rich history in medicine dating back to 1000 BC. Known for its ability to alleviate anxiety and insomnia, this oil has been a popular remedy for centuries. Its refreshing scent contains prominent citrus notes and brings to mind the bitterness of the common seasoning found in mulled wine, baked goods, and liquor.

      ORCHID fragrances

      The orchid family boasts an impressive collection of nearly 30,000 different varieties and can be found growing all around the globe. While many of these species prefer warmer climates, there are even a few varieties that can be spotted near Antarctica. Throughout history, orchids have been utilized for their herbal medicinal properties in China, but they are perhaps best known for producing vanilla. The scent of orchids is a complex blend of rose, hyacinth, cinnamon, and jasmine.

      ORRIS fragrances

      Orris root has a rich history in both fragrance and medicine. The Greeks and Romans utilized the slightly corrosive juice of the fresh root in their cosmetics, while in Greece, perfume was created from the dried root. In France and England, scented sachets were popularly used in wardrobes and dressing rooms. In modern perfumery, orris absolute or a tincture of the root is commonly employed. The scent is known for its gentle, powdery aroma.

      OSMANTHUS in perfumery

      Osmanthus, a delicate plant native to the warmer regions of Asia, may not be commonly found in the northern parts of the world. This evergreen plant blooms in spring, summer, and autumn and produces a strong, fruity, and floral fragrance with notes of plum and raisin. With its exotic and luxurious aroma, Osmanthus is a truly unique fragrance. 

      PALMA ROSA in perfumery

      Palma rosa, a grass that grows wild in India and Indochina, is highly valued for the fragrant essential oil that can be distilled from its leaves. With its antiseptic properties and versatility in perfumes and oils, the oil has been utilized for centuries. Palma rosa boasts a captivating floral scent with light green and grassy undertones, making for an almost intoxicating aroma. 

      PAPYRUS in perfumery

      Papyrus is a sturdy, perennial herb that can reach heights of up to four meters and is native to tropical Africa. Throughout history, papyrus has been utilized for a variety of purposes. In antiquity, it was primarily used as a writing material, but the plant also served as a source of household items, fuel, carpets, and clothing. Papyrus was even used to construct vessels, as evidenced by Norwegian explorer Thor Heyerdahl's expeditions. In perfumery, papyrus adds a smoky and coarse scent to fragrances.

      What is PATCHOULI?

      Patchouli, a shrub-like plant, was initially utilized in India to repel moths from clothing but gained popularity in Europe during the trade era. Its tall, green stems are adorned with purple petals that exude the distinct aroma. To capture the scent of patchouli, its dry leaves undergo steam distillation to obtain essential oil, which is then refined for several months. This refining process is essential to eliminate the bitterness and produce the smooth, woody scent that is so cherished. The scent of patchouli is sweet and herbaceous, followed by a slightly earthy aroma with dry medicinal undertones and notes of spices.

      PEACH fragrances

      Peaches are stone fruits belonging to the plum genus, and they have been cultivated in China for over 4,000 years. In Chinese culture, the peach flower holds significant importance, as it is believed to ward off evil spirits. Peaches are widely enjoyed as a delicious fruit, either eaten fresh or used in desserts and pastries, and are available in both canned and fresh forms. The aroma of peaches is characterized by its sweet, full, and fruity fragrance.

       PEACH BLOSSOM fragrances

      Peach blossom originates from the peach tree, which was named after Alexander the Great's encounter with the fruit in Persia, present-day Iran. However, peaches actually originate from China, where they are commonly found in folklore and associated with immortality. In China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam, the peach tree is revered for its symbolic power, and the blossoms are believed to ward off evil. The aroma of peach blossom is similar to jasmine with hints of citrus and berries, but also features distinct notes of peach and musk.

      PEAR perfumes

      Pears grow on medium to fairly large trees with glossy leaves and large white flowers that bloom in the spring. They originated in Greece and have been documented as far back as 1000 B.C. Today, pears are available in hundreds of different varieties and are known for their sweet, juicy, and slightly mealy texture.  One of the unique characteristics of pears is their sweet and fruity scent, which is more complex than that of apples. Whether eaten fresh or cooked, the delicate flavor and aroma of pears make them a favorite among fruit lovers.

      PELARGONIUM in perfumery

      Pelargoniums belong to the same plant family as geraniums and share similar scents and appearances. Introduced to Europe in the 1600s, Pelargoniums quickly became popular among gardeners and perfumers alike. To extract essential oils from Pelargoniums, the leaves and stems are distilled. The resulting scent is fresh, green, and fruity, with hints of both rose and peppermint.

      PEONY scents

      Peonies are native to Asia, North America, and southern Europe. Legend has it that the flower was named after a Greek medical student named Paeon, who was turned into a flower by Zeus out of jealousy towards his teacher, the Greek god of medicine. The scent of peonies is fresh, flowery, and green, with a subtle hint of the peony flower itself.

      PEPPERMINT perfumes

      Peppermint is a ubiquitous herb found across the world, used as a common seasoning in candies, food, and even popular cocktails such as the Mojito. With a long history of medicinal use, peppermint is known to alleviate stomach pains. The essential oils of peppermint are extracted through the distillation of its dried leaves, yielding a scent that is powerful, cool, and refreshing.

      PETIT GRAIN in perfumes

      Petit Grain, a French term meaning "little grains," refers to the essential oil extracted from the leaves and twigs of the Bitter Orange tree. Unlike Neroli, which comes from the tree's flowers, Petit Grain is made from the skin of the unripe fruit. This oil is primarily used in perfumes due to its strong citrus scent, which is unique and distinct from other citrus oils. The fragrance combines a fresh citrus aroma with woody notes, creating a bittersweet and warm scent that also has hints of rosemary.

      PINE in perfumes

      Pine trees are ubiquitous in forests and have many uses, including woodworking, pine resin, and pine oil, which is known for its antibacterial properties. Pine needles can be boiled to make a drink rich in vitamin C. To obtain the essential oils, distillation of the needles, twigs, and sometimes even the wood is necessary. The scent is refreshingly cool, with sweet and slightly dry notes.

      PINK PEPPERCORN in perfumes

      Pink peppercorns are actually berries that come from the Peruvian pepper tree, and they are not related to black or white pepper. The name "false pepper" originates from the 1500s, when black pepper was highly valued for its believed ability to protect against the plague, while pink peppercorns were considered to lack this property and were thus less expensive. The essential oil extracted from pink peppercorns is starting to be used in perfumes, where it provides a creamy aroma that bears some resemblance to black pepper.

      PISTACHIO in perfumery

      Pistachio is a small tree that is native to southwest Asia. Its stone fruits contain elongated seeds called pistachios, which are known for their distinct flavor. The beige-white shell of the fruit is hard, while the core is light green. Pistachios are often eaten whole, either fresh or roasted and salted, and are also used in ice cream and pastries. In perfumes, pistachio contributes a slightly sweet, leathery fragrance.

      PLUMS fragrances

      The plum is a widely cultivated stone fruit that grows on trees and comes in a variety of types. Plums can be eaten fresh, dried, or used to make jam, marmalade, or compote. In Asian cuisine, plums are often used to make both mild and strong sauces. When used in perfumes, plums add a delicate herbaceous and fruity aroma with notes of plum.

      POMEGRANTE fragrances

      Pomegranate, a fruit with ancient roots, originated in Iran and has since spread to other regions of Asia, southern Europe, and the Middle East. This fruit has played a significant role in various cultures throughout history, and continues to do so today. For example, the Egyptians and pharaohs viewed pomegranates as symbols of ambition and wealth, while in Greece, they were referred to as "fruits of the dead" and placed on the graves of heroes. As for its scent, pomegranate has a distinct aroma that is slightly sweeter than the fruit itself, with a hint of wine.

      POMELO in perfumery

      Pomelo is a citrus fruit that is commonly found in many parts of the world. Its scent is fresh and fruity, with a distinct citrus aroma that is reminiscent of grapefruit, but with a milder and sweeter tone. The scent becomes more noticeable when you peel the fruit and the juicy flesh is revealed. The aroma is refreshing and aromatic, with a sweet and sour, slightly bitter citrus scent. Pomelo has a unique scent that sets it apart from other citrus fruits due to its mild and sweet notes. It is best experienced when the fruit is peeled or cut, as this is where the aromatic oils are concentrated.

      PRIVET FLOWER in perfumery

      Privet flowers are known for their unique and enchanting scent, which can be described as sweet, floral, and slightly spicy. The fragrance is reminiscent of a combination of honey and jasmine, with subtle undertones of vanilla and mandarin. When in bloom, privet flowers emit a mild yet wonderfully aromatic scent that fills the surrounding space.

      RASPBERRY perfumes

      Better: Raspberries are a widely cultivated fruit found around the world, often used in juices and desserts. While Russia is the largest producer, Serbia and the U.S. are not far behind. The fragrance of raspberries is refreshing, sweet, and has distinct notes of the fruit itself.

      RED WOOD in perfumes

      Redwood, is a type of coniferous tree that belongs to the cypress family. These majestic trees are primarily found in California and North Dakota, and are named Redwoods due to their distinctive reddish bark. Notably, they can grow to be incredibly old and large, reaching towering heights and impressive diameters. The scent of Redwood is characterized by a combination of needle, resin, and cypress notes. Some people also detect a slightly damp mulch aroma in the scent.

      ROCK ROSE in perfumes

      Rock Rose is a delicate shrub with sheer petals that originates from the rugged Mediterranean landscape. Despite its fragile appearance, these flowers thrive in harsh and rocky environments where they release their incredible scent. The essence of Rock Rose is reminiscent of amber with its warm, resinous, woody, and spicy aromas.

      ROSE perfumes

      The Rose has its origins in Africa and Asia, were roses have been grown for thousands of years. Today the rose is cultivated perhaps primarily for its beauty and fragrance, but it is and has been strongly linked to various religions and myths. Roses give a very pleasant scent that most people appreciate. The oil has hints of vanilla, honey, but of course, also rose. The aroma is often soft, sweet, and imbued with a warm, inviting quality. 

      ROSEMARY in perfumes

      Rosemary is believed to have received its name from the Latin words "ros" and "marinus", which means "dew of the sea" due to its numerous small blue flowers that resemble dewdrops. This herb has been used in aromatherapy and incense for centuries and was believed to keep evil spirits away while improving memory. Additionally, Rosemary is a common herb used in cooking. Its scent can vary between being bitter and sweet with hints of lavender or more fresh and strong with a hint of eucalyptus.

      ROSEWOOD in perfumes

      Rosewood, also known as Rose Tree, gained popularity as a perfume ingredient in the latter half of the 19th century. This exotic wood is highly sought after for its intricate patterns and is commonly used in fine carpentry and musical instruments, particularly guitars. Rosewood oil is primarily extracted through distillation in Brazil. The scent is subtle, with a delicate balance of floral and woody notes, and a hint of rose.

      RHUBARB fragrances

      Rhubarb is a plant that originated in China, Mongolia, and Siberia. The plant has been known since the 17th century when it was used as a medicinal herb. During the 18th and 19th centuries, rhubarb started to be used in cooking. Rhubarb is typically boiled and used for cream, juice, jam, and pies. Due to its sour taste, a lot of sugar is needed when cooking it. The smell is fresh and green. When used in perfumes, rhubarb gives a metallic and cool character.

      SAFFRON fragrances

      Saffron, a spice with a long history of cultivation, was even grown in Europe during the Roman Empire, but disappeared with its fall and later reappeared in the 700s. The labor-intensive process of harvesting saffron, requiring 200,000 flowers to yield just one kilogram, makes it a highly valuable commodity. In perfumery, saffron provides notes of metallic honey with hints of hay and grass, adding a warm and spicy quality to fragrances.

      SAGE fragrances

      Sage is a well-known herb with a long history of use. It has been known in India since about 1000 BC and has been used for both culinary and medicinal purposes. Additionally, it has been used as incense in religious rituals by native peoples of the Americas. To extract the essential oils used in perfumes, sage is distilled, with wild sage yielding more oil than farmed sage. The resulting scent is highly herbaceous, reminiscent of rosemary. In summary, sage is a versatile herb with a rich history of use. Its essential oils, extracted through distillation, have a strong herbaceous scent similar to rosemary.

      What is SANDALWOOD?

      Sandalwood is a fragrant tree that is native to Asia but also grows in Oceania. It is known for its medicinal properties and has been used for centuries in aromatherapy. To extract the essential oils used in perfumes, sandalwood is subjected to distillation. Interestingly, the older the wood, the more potent and aromatic the oils that are extracted. The essential oils obtained from distillation have a unique and complex scent, featuring warm and sweet notes with oriental spice and rose undertones. With its smooth, milky properties, it serves as a delightful fixative that has been a source of inspiration for perfumers for centuries. Its warm, woody and ambery aroma possesses a velvety texture that is simultaneously creamy and decadent. 

      SEA BUCKTHORN in perfumey

      Sea buckthorn possesses a distinctive and characteristic fragrance that is a blend of fruity, tart, and mildly spicy notes. Its scent is mildly potent, evoking the essence of citrus, with undertones of orange, grapefruit, and lemon, but with a unique twist.

      STYRAX in perfumery

      Styrax is a highly fragrant and resinous substance that is extracted from the bark of certain trees belonging to the Styrax genus. Its scent can be described as warm, balsamic, and sweet, with distinct notes of vanilla, almond, cinnamon, and incense. Additionally, it can possess a subtle floral aroma with hints of jasmine or lily of the valley. The calming and relaxing properties of styrax make it a popular ingredient in both aromatherapy and perfume making. Its warm and soothing scent can evoke feelings of comfort and serenity, making it a valuable addition to any fragrance blend.

      SUEDE perfumes

      Suede is a material made from animal skins, similar to leather. However, it has a distinct matte finish because it is not the outermost layer of skin that provides the smooth surface of traditional leather. The name "suede" originates from the French word for "Swedish gloves." Perfumers often incorporate a synthetic ingredient to create a velvety fragrance with notes of musk, leather, and wood that evoke the texture and feel of suede.

      TANGERINE in perfumes

      Tangerine is a small citrus fruit that closely resembles the mandarin and shares its Chinese and Asian origins. Its name is said to originate from Tangier, a city in Morocco where the fruit was cultivated and shipped to Europe. The essential oil is extracted by cold pressing the peel and has a warm, slightly sweeter scent than other citrus oils. Tangerine's fragrance is a unique blend of orange and mandarin, giving it a refreshing and zesty aroma.

      TARRAGON in perfumes

      Tarragon is an herb we might recognize from the French Béarnaise sauce, but the herb is originally from Russia. Today it grows worldwide in the northern hemisphere. The name Tarragon is said to come from that in the past believed that the herb could cure snake bites, the name is a combination of the Greek word Drakos, Arabic tarkhum and Latin dracunculus which means "Little Dragon". Essential oils are obtained by distillation of the new flowering plants and the scent is sweet, spicy, slightly woody, and with hints of licorice and citrus.

      THYME in perfumes

      The scent of thyme is unique and can be described as sweet and herbal with a slightly medicinal quality. It has a strong aromatic presence that can be detected in various settings, including perfumes, aromatherapy, and cooking.

      TOBACCO in perfumery

      Tobacco has been cultivated for centuries, but its widespread production began after the arrival of Europeans in the Americas. Today, tobacco is mainly associated with smoking, whether in cigarettes, cigars, or pipes. In the 1700s, snuffing was a common way to consume tobacco, but the trend later faded in the 1800s. Tobacco oil has a rich, warm, and earthy scent that is commonly used in perfumes.

      TOMATO LEAF fragrances

      Tomatoes are commonly known as a vegetable even though they are technically a fruit. They are extensively grown worldwide and commonly used in cooking. In the perfume industry, the leaves of the tomato plant are used to extract an aromatic note that provides a fresh, earthy scent with a subtle tanginess.

      TONKA BEAN fragrances

      Tonka beans are primarily grown in South America, but in recent years, cultivation has also spread to Africa where trees can be over 1000 years old. In some ancient mythologies, the Tonka bean held great importance and was believed to possess magical powers. It was said that brewing tea with the bean could strengthen the immune system and cure depression. Tonka beans are harvested once they have fallen off the tree. The perfume industry commonly uses the bean for its fragrant notes of fresh-cut grass, sweet hay, anise, celery, and vanilla.

      TUBEROSE perfumes

      Tuberose, originally from Mexico, is an essential part of Indian culture and frequently used at weddings. The flowers bloom at night and are often referred to as "night fragrance" or "smell of the moon" in several Asian languages. Tuberose is a rare fragrance and is only found in premium perfumes due to the high cost of production. The scent, which is said to be a favorite among women, is described as being heavy, sweet like honey, and floral with subtle hints of spice.

      TULIP fragrances

      Tulips are bulbous plants belonging to the Liliaceae family, originally found in southern Europe, north Africa and parts of Asia. Garden tulips were introduced to Europe from the Ottoman Empire in the 1500s. Nowadays, tulips are often associated with Holland, which is the world's main exporter of tulips and hosts tulip festivals every year. These decorative flowers come in countless colors, both plain and striped. Although tulips are not known for their strong fragrance, they do have a mild, sweet scent.

      What is VANILLA?

      Vanilla has a fascinating history, with its origins in present-day Mexico where it was considered a prized and rare spice by the Aztecs. They received vanilla instead of gold during conquest and reparations. Europeans were introduced to vanilla in the 1500s and named it "little capsule" in Spanish and Portuguese. Today, vanilla is cultivated in several regions around the world including South America, Africa, Asia and Oceania. Madagascar is the largest producer of vanilla worldwide. Smooth, warm and decadently sweet—the scent of vanilla is easily one of the most recognizable notes in perfumery. It is widely used in ambery accords, as it pairs lovingly with notes of warmth and sensuality. It is soft and delicately spicy, with animalic facets.

      VERBENA in perfumery

      Verbena is believed to have been introduced to Europe from the "New World" in the 1600s. Its leaves can be used to season foods due to its citrus flavor, and it is also popular as an ingredient in teas. Essential oils are extracted from the plant through distillation, resulting in a fresh and fruity citrus scent with sweet and rosy undertones.

      VETIVER in perfumery

      Vetiver, also known as Chrysopogon zizanioides, is a versatile plant that originated in India. It has been used for making ropes, as well as extracting oils for aromatherapy and perfumery. The oils are obtained by drying and distilling the roots. The scent of vetiver is characterized by its earthy and woody aroma, with hints of resin and a bitter-sweet smokiness.
      Art Life, Continental and The High Road has the vetiver note in the scents.

      VIOLET FLOWER in perfumery

      The violet flower family is a large one, with 400-500 different varieties found all over the world. These flowers are grown for perfume making in French Grasse, and their fragrance has captured the hearts of people throughout history. In ancient Greece, violets were believed to have medicinal properties and were used to treat various ailments. The Prophet Muhammad once described their scent as superior to all other flower extracts. In France, violets became a symbol of loyalty to Emperor Napoleon. It's worth noting that the scent of violet flowers differs greatly from that of the leaves. The flower extract is sweet, powdery, and floral. We use violet leaf in the top note of Sand Service.

      WORMWOOD in perfumery

      Wormwood is a plant that grows naturally in temperate regions of Europe and Africa. The name "wormwood" is believed to have originated from the plant's traditional use as a remedy for worm infections. Today, wormwood is used primarily as a flavoring agent in liquor and some wines, such as Vermouth, which is flavored with the herb. To extract essential oils from wormwood, the dried flowering herb is typically distilled. The resulting aroma is characterized by a green, herbaceous scent that is both invigorating and soothing. Over time, the scent of wormwood can develop into a warm, sweet fragrance with subtle notes of coffee.

      YLANG YLANG fragrances

      Ylang-Ylang, also known as Ilang-Ilang, is a tree native to India, Indonesia, and the Philippines. The name "ylang-ylang" means "rare" and refers to the tree's highly prized fragrance, which is used in both perfumery and aromatherapy due to its purported medicinal properties. The scent of ylang-ylang is sweet and tropical, with complex floral notes that evoke jasmine, neroli, and even bitter almond and peppermint. It is a popular ingredient in many fragrances, both as a standalone note and in blends with other floral and fruity scents. Ylang Ylang is presence in both Ami Amie and Continental.

      YUZU in perfumery

      Yuzu is a citrus fruit native to East Asia and is often compared to grapefruit due to its tangy and zesty flavor. In addition to being a popular ingredient in East Asian cuisine, the Japanese have also been known to add whole Yuzu fruits to their bathwater as they believe it has properties that can help protect against the cold. Essential oils are extracted from the fruit's peel using cold-pressing techniques, resulting in a dry, bitter aroma that is reminiscent of grapefruit.

       Read more about different fragrance families here


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